Challenges with Italian

Each language, regardless of how directly connected under the cover, is a separate and striking thing which is both only one of its kind dispute and an exceptional joy. In the Professional human translation services one focus very closely on a language match up, and it’s extremely apprehensive when people maintain to be professionally-fluent in supplementary to the other language pair. However that shouldn’t signify that many translation proficient don’t learn other languages for their own learning and enjoyment, and the further one study about different languages the more it results in enhanced translation output one do in general.

Italian

For example Italian is one of the, for the most part, fine languages. Even if one is familiar with other Romance languages, Italian has its individual precise defy and particular quirks with the purpose of creating a far-fetched exciting activity to translate into, particularly from English. One may suppose that spiraling clunky English through its Germanic rhythms into the verse of Italian would be fun and it is, however it’s also very theoretically demanding for several of reasons – particularly if one wants ones final result to sound natural.

The Art of One

In Italian, for instance, there are mixtures of ways to speak to an important person as the second person. In English one might have a phrase like “One must to have a split today.” Italian recommends three ways to speak to somebody as “you,” the infinitive, the plural voi, and the singular tu. In this meticulous well-known promotional slogan, one might go with tu because it’s usually used to involve familiarity and a tranquil tone. Choosing the accurate preposition is one of the most fundamental conduct e can make ones Italian sound more natural and less like one learned it in a book, where one almost always come away with a depressingly formal way of speaking and writing.

The Art of The

Italian also insists on prepositions more severely than in English. In English one can frequently get away with dropping the “The” from brand name and designer labels. For example, one can call something “Instruction Manual” in English, but in Italian one should be obligatory to put the missing “the” back in place. Further, the prepositions are divided into genders so one have to work from side to side whether it’s masculine, feminine, or neuter as one go.

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Italian Translation: Moods of Italian Verbs

Italian linguists might have to take a few grammar rules which Italians follow into consideration when they perform language translation services. Italian verbs have a consistent, complex system of forms that express categories such as mood, tense, person, and number; this system is called conjugation (coniugazione).

In grammatical terminology the word inflection indicates, in general, any process of modifying a root through the addition of affixes. More specifically, grammaticians speak of conjugation in relation to the processes of verbal inflection, and declension in relation to the processes of nominal inflection.

A speaker may present the matter expressed by the verb in different ways, each of which is a separate point of view, a different psychological attitude, a different communicative relationship with those who listen: certainty, possibility, desire, command, etc.

Sometimes, the use of a particular mood may also depend on stylistic reasons, on a choice of register or on a linguistic level. So, for example, when using verbs that express an opinion, the indicative (mi pare che ha ragione) is an expression more common than the subjunctive (mi pare che abbia ragione).

Italian-Verb
In Italian there are seven verbal moods:

  1. MODI FINITI (DEFINITE MOODS)
    1. indicativo (io amo)
    2. congiuntivo (che io ami)
    3. condizionale (io amerei)
    4. imperativo (ama!)
  2. MODI INDEFINITI (INDEFINITE MOODS)
    1. infinito (amare)
    2. participio (amante)
    3. gerundio (amando)

While the definite moods determine the tense, person, and number, indefinite moods do not determine the person nor, with the exception of the participio, the number.

The infinitive, participle, and gerund are also known as “nominal forms of the verb,” because they often function as noun and adjective; already mentioned is the present participle amante, to which can be added the past participle la (donna) amata. Consider also the infinitives l’essere, il dare, l’avere, and l’imbrunire, or gerunds that become nouns such as laureando and reverendo.

How to learn a new language: 7 secrets

It is believed that a young mind learns languages quickly, but that should not make adults refrain from learning new languages. According to a research project by TED’s Open Language Translation Services project here are some basic tips which can be implemented to master the art of leaning a foreign language.

Language

Get real.

In the beginning decide on a simple, achievable goal so that you don’t feel overawed. A German translator suggests: “Pick up 50 words of a language and start using them on people — and then slowly start picking up grammar.”

Make language-learning a lifestyle change.

According to another teacher who is in her 27 years of teaching English, in the research conducting has always observed steadiness as what splits the most efficacious students from the others. Learners should try to make a language habit which can be followed no matter what even when you’re tired, sick or madly in love.

Language

Play house with the language.

Learning a new language continuously keeps the brain in practice. The more you include a foreign language into your daily life, the more ones brain will consider it something valuable and worth caring about. According to researcher who is also a Russian translator in the study “Use every opportunity to get exposed to the new language.” Mark every object in your house in the language you are learning, read books written for kids preferably with illustrations, watch subtitled movies and talks, or live-narrate parts of your day to an imaginary foreign friend.

Let technology help you out.

Dmitrochenkova another researcher in the study presents the idea: “A funny thing like resetting the language on your phone can help you learn new words right away”. Or you can look for many options available online for better and structured learning opportunities. Dutch translator suggests; to expertise in grammar it is best to memorizing vocabulary with its “intelligent” flashcards.

Language

Think about language-learning as a gateway to new experiences.

Learning a new language open up to new experiences from “visiting parks, attending shows, enjoying poetry and folk-rock festivals, to learning about photo-essay techniques.” In other words, according to a Spanish researcher and translator it is fun things that he wanted to do anyway, and makes them into a language-learning opportunity. Many translators learn languages by watching undubbed versions of favorite movies, or even by watching favorite cartoons.

Make new friends.

Interacting with new people who speak the language you are trying to learn can be great help. It will teach you to instinctively express your opinions, instead of mentally translating each sentence before you express it. Look for native speakers around you, or you can even search for foreign pen-pals, set up a language forum online, where volunteer participants can help one another practice their respective languages.

Language

Do not worry about making mistakes.

Do not fear about making mistakes while learning a new language. It is one of the most common barriers to conversing in a new language. But native speakers are like doting parents: any attempt from you to communicate in their language is objective proof that you are a gifted genius. They’ll appreciate your effort and even help you. Nervous about holding a conversation with a peer? Try testing your language skills with someone a little younger. “I was stoked when I was chatting with an Italian toddler and realized we had the same level of Italian,” recalls German translator Judith Matz in the research. And be patient. The more you speak, the closer you’ll get to the elusive ideal of “native-like fluency.” And to talking to people your own age.

Equilibrium between Humans and Automation

It’s all about Trust.

There’s an enthralling analogy between aircraft operation and language services. To conclude both have adequate technology but still need human involvement. Like an aircraft cannot be completely flown without a human pilot; similarly it would be unwise to depend on entirely automated technology. Hence, I conclude a complete shift to machine translation will not happen in the language industry.

Ever wonder why the doors to the pilot cockpit on commercial airline flights are left open during passenger boarding? It appears that out that the passengers have a charming and very human need to peer into the cockpit and see the pilots sitting there. The airlines know this, so they leave the doors open for the passengers during boarding so we can all scratch this persistent little itch of need and reassurance.

It’s also why the pilots talk to us over the intercom during the flight.

So why all this soft-touch hand-holding of passengers? The pilots are actually flying the plane for one reason only: Trust. The plane can fly perfectly well without them and in fact mostly does. If you think translators feel threatened by the encroaching wave of next-generation machine translation software, consider the case of poor commercial airline pilots.

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Computer automation today – the current state of technology – can fly commercial aircraft more safely, reliably and flawlessly; respond more nimbly and quickly to changes, and navigate seamlessly through more potential horrific disasters better than any human pilot can.

That’s a potential financial blockbuster for an eternally struggling airline industry. So why hasn’t that happened yet?

The passengers. They would stay away in droves.

Even a hopelessly romantic technophile like me would think twice about flying across the country on an aircraft flown entirely by computer. Although the airlines would sell a LOT of alcohol on those flights.

Cost of Failure

The calculus is different for a passenger because the cost of failure dramatically outweighs every other consideration. The global civil aviation infrastructure has been built up over the last 50 years to maximize safety. It’s this investment in a massive safety culture that allowed commercial air travel to become a commodity. In practical terms, modern civil aviation beat the cost of failure right out of the equation.

Airlines still struggle to differentiate on quality, but they operate in a hyper-competitive, price-driven, razor-thin-profit commodity market because commercial air travel has been engineered to be safer than any other activity in human life.

Good for us passengers. Very bad for the airlines’ bottom line.

Risk and Trust in the Language Services Market

So now we come to the language services market, where the cost of failure is very much alive. In this context, translation customers large and small find themselves faced with the following scenario:

  • They have a real (often vital) need for language services
  • They can’t judge or assess product quality themselves
  • They have a desire (like we all do) not to look foolish or embarrass their company
  • They would like to keep their jobs
  • Their business must succeed in a highly competitive environment

There are risks everywhere in that description – which is ultimately about human emotions in response to doubt, uncertainty, and vulnerability.

What’s most interesting about these requirements is that they mostly lie outside the clients’ own direct control. So their objective in seeking out language services suppliers is to mitigate all these risks. That means that their decision-making process extends to areas far beyond the scope of the physical translation alone.

The persistent laser focus on “quality” and post-editing of machine translation to the exclusion of what language services clients actually need, want and buy every day undermines the financial viability of that approach.

So in addition to translation “quality,” clients value a whole host of soft-touch capabilities whose purpose is to engender trust and confidence and protect them from disaster, just like the (live human expert) airline pilots do.

Here are some examples of how companies that purchase translation services seek to mitigate those risks:

  • They dilute their risk by selecting multiple suppliers
  • They choose suppliers with diverse linguistic and technical capabilities
  • They utilize client review teams
  • They request translation certification
  • They require guarantees, warranties or the right to require revisions

In addition to alleviating obvious risks, language service providers also add value in many other important and essential ways because we see things our clients are unlikely to see. That’s because our clients typically are not language people, do not inhabit the target culture, are not experts in foreign character set encoding, do not give much thought to different time and date formats around the world, etc.

What if Machine Translation becomes perfect?

A reasonable objection to this whole argument is that improving machine translation to the point where it’s indistinguishable from human translation services does in fact address the trust issue and resolves it.

In my view that objection fails because the uncertainty never goes away. Machine translation engines deal in the currency of disambiguation and semantic mapping but never eliminate ambiguity or doubt or even claim to. So error and doubt are actually assumed to perpetually exist in the solution.

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Even if this weren’t true, translation users for decades have sought – and largely succeeded – in offloading every possible conceivable risk and remedy onto the translation service providers themselves. Our customers are airline passengers and they expect us – the pilots – to make sure they get home safely. If we use automation in our work, it better not harm them or their business.

a.      Reduced expectations and market realities

This stand-off of sorts has led to many unusually tense – and sometimes baffling – discussions between translation users who are increasingly demanding speed, savings and scalability via machine translation and hybrid MT/TM technology, while language service companies – fully aware of the downside risks that will come back to haunt them – are urging these same clients to abandon client review, adopt “reasonable” (dramatically reduced) expectations, and introduce end-user usability testing that measures outcomes rather than translation accuracy.

b.     The fruits of long endeavors

These attempts to find common ground will continue in the near-term, but the two sides would be far better served if they focused on the herd of elephants milling around the room with “risk,” “trust,” and “liability” signs hanging around their necks.

In the coming decades stand-alone machine translation and other high-speed language automation technologies are going to branch off and serve different markets than will human translation, with its focus on absolute precision, insight, creativity and impact. This is especially true of the boutique end of the market where even today there are not enough skilled human translators to meet demand.

We are already seeing new emerging markets where translation needs are beginning to explode, exact precision is less urgent and speed is paramount – online help desk forums, chat rooms, and quick feedback surveys are some examples, with the Twitter universe standing next in line.

And of course translators – the ultimate technology early adapters – will continue to be among the most ardent users of appropriate language technology in their day-to-day work lives.

Happily this means that the global language services market will diversify and expand in all dimensions to accommodate these new realities. It’s helpful if we all recognize that technology rarely destroys; it more commonly amplifies, or explodes in a galaxy of new choices. Machine translation itself is just a new river in a vast ecosystem.

HUMAN TRANSLATION IS HERE TO STAY

                                Will Machine Translation Ever Beat Human Translation?

 

It is so temptation when we think of a world where communicating with others in different languages is effortlessly easy, all hail to machine translation. Will the rise in machine translation mean that people won’t have to learn languages anymore?

It is evident that evolution of machine translation is spreading fast, but the fact of the matter is that we haven’t yet reached the ideal vision. Will it ever happen?

Machine translation dates back since around 1950s, where researchers began the simple use of software to translate text or speech into different languages. The first commercial machine translation system appeared in 1991, with the first web applications following along a few years later.

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In the tech-age today, machine translation technology varies from extensively used, free online translation services such as Google Translate, to cheap, on-the-go mobile phone apps such as Apple’s iTranslate, to rather more expensive, customizable, professional software packages.

The pros of machine translation are clear:

It’s cheap and sometimes even free depending on the kind of service you use.

It’s swift for on-the-spot translation needs, or time-critical web content.

It’s innovating almost every other day as researchers strive to make machine translation technology better.

But we can’t ignore the drawbacks which are as clear as the benefits:

It lacks localization as it produces straightforward translation. There is little or no localization in reproducing the content into a suitable cultural context.

Tone in the content is nearly nonexistent as machine translation focuses to translate more restrained aspects of language such as humor and metaphor.

Machine translation often reads very awkwardly breaking the momentum of content, which results in poorly structured sentences which are difficult to read.

If you’ve invested a good time to create content; then you definitely need human creative translation to do justice to the original content and make certain that all client objectives are met.

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Probably the most prominent machine translation failure incident is about the Chinese café which wanted to provide a sign in both English and Chinese. The Chinese sign (in Chinese characters) said ‘Dining Hall’, while the shiny new English sign said ‘Translate Server Error.’

The incident attracted global publicity but it did not prove harmful for the café. Although in the serious world of business machine translation such errors can cause some significant complications. Sometimes the organization can end up facing legal action.

Therefore we conclude, that human translation is here to stay. There is unquestionably a place for machine translation, especially in those circumstances where urgency is more important than precision, but in a professional perspective nothing will ever beat the impact of creative, precise, localized, human translation.

The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan

The impact of Hindu culture deeply inspired Philippine lifestyle.
The sarong ( skirt ) and the putong ( turban ) donned by the early Filipinos ( Pinoy ) and the embroidered shawls continue to donned by today’s Muslim Filipino women are a Indian impact . It has been estimated that nearly 30 percent of the Tagalog words and phrases are derived from Sanskrit, India’s ancient language which significantly indluenced the current European languages similar to English and German. Just a few Sanskrit words in Tagalog are Bathala ( the supreme God ), dala ( fishnet ) , asawa ( spouse ), mama ( man ), diwa ( thought ), puri ( honor ), mata ( eye ), likha ( creation ), lakambini ( princess ), kuta ( fortress ), and wika ( language ). The use of brass, bronze, copper and tin in the decorative arts and metalwork of the earlier Filipinos is also a Indian influence. The boat-shaped lute, a musical instrument even now played by Muslim Pinoys, is of Indian origin.

Early Filipino folklore and literature also present intensive Indian influences. The Maranaw epic Darangan is Indian in both of plot and characters. Balituk, the story of the Ifugao legendary hero, is just like Arjuna’s exploits in the Mahabharata, the terrific Hindu epic. The Agusan legend of a man known as Agnio, resembles the tale of Ahalya in the Ramayana, another great Hindu epic. An eclipse is called laho in Tagalog and Kapampangan. The Philippine people faith is to the impact that an eclipse occurs when the sky dragon swallows and bites the moon or the sun. Old folks tell that the eclipsed moon is red because the sky dragon laho has bitten it, making it bleed, and the folk stampede in into releasing the moon by beating on cans and drums. The marks one finds out on the face of the newly risen moon are said to have been made by the teeth of the dragon that bites it every time it can, and the Hindu god that causes eclipses by biting the moon or the sun is Rahu.

From the Chinese, the early Filipinos learned how to use porcelain ware, umbrellas, production of gunpowder, and specific mining techniques. The loose style in the early Filipino style of dressin, the sleeved jackets and loose trouser of the Muslim Filipino women and the use of slippers show Chinese influence also. As well of Chinese origin was the wearing of yellow dress by the nobles and of blue clothes by the commoners in pre-Spanish Philippine society. The wearing of white dresses and the use of a white background in mourning and burial ceremonies is another Chinese impact.

Several Chinese words exist in the Tagalog language. Among these include sangko ( elder brother ) , pansit ( noodles ) , tinghoy ( oil lamp ) , hibi ( dried shrimp ) , petsay ( Chinese cabbage ) , dikyam ( dried fruit ) , ampaw ( cereal ) , and susi ( key ) . The surnames of a great many Filipino families are of Chinese origin, such as Cojuangco, Lim, Tan, Limjoco, Tongko, Juico and Ongsiako.
Equally important was the adoption by the early Filipinos of certain Chinese traditions. Among those are the arrangement of marriages by the parents of the prospective groom and bride, the practice of employing a go-between in proposing a marriage, and the deep respect accorded by the children to their parents and other elders.

The Japanese developed some important contributions to Philippine life too. They introduced the early Filipinos certain businesses such as the manufacture of arms and equipment’s, the tanning of deerskin, and the unnatural breeding of ducks and fish.
The most significant gift of the Arabs to the life of Muslim Filipinos was Islam, still a living religion in Mindanao and Sulu. The calendar, law, form of government, art, and literature of the Muslim Filipinos are of Arabic origin. The sarimanok design and style in Maranaw decorative art has an Arabic origin. Many tales in Maranaw and Tausug literature are derived from Arabian tales. Finally , there are some Arabic words found in the Tagalog language, such as alam ( know ), sulat ( letter ), salamat ( thanks ), hukom ( judges ), and piklat ( scar ).

Companies who seek to expand their services to a Japanese-speaking market mostly seek English to Japanese translation services. And why shouldn’t they? Japan is without a doubt at the forefront of global trade and offers the perfect economic environment for every business that wants to make it big. But language is a major factor, even when you are dealing with Japanese companies in your home country.

Related:

Interesting Facts about the Korean Language

Importance of Arabic Language in Today’s Global Business Market

Difference between English and Russian Language

 

SAN ZI JING – THE THREE-CHARACTERS CLASSIC

Introduction:

The San Zi Jing (Three Character Classic), written in the 13th century and attributed to Wang Yinglin (1223-1296), is not one of the traditional six Confucian classics, but rather is a distillation of the essentials of Confucian thought expressed in a way suitable for teaching young children. Until the latter part of this century, it served as a child’s first bit of formal education at home. It is written in couplets of three characters (syllables) for easy memorization. One might call it a Confucian catechism.

George Yeo, then Singapore’s Minister for Trade and Industry, in an address at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, described the work thus: “For centuries, Chinese children, before they could read or write, were taught to recite the San Zi Jing through which the Confucianist idea of society being one big happy family is programmed into young minds. The three-character phrases are like strands of cultural DNA which are passed on from generation to generation.” (Cf. Sanzijing at raptor.depauw.edu)

Sources:

Notes & illustration:

2004-07-20: Note from Name/pseudo (Commenter on Sanzijing 0.)
The San Zi Jing as appeared in the link you provided
http://www.pep.com.cn/200306/ca224428.htm
is actually a copy from
http://www.openface.ca/~dstephen/trimetric.htm

The person who put up the trimetric.htm page copied the text from Giles book by hand back in the late 1960s. He made several mistakes in his transcription, which he could not decipher when he put his Web page a few years ago. The “side-notes” of the undecipherable text showed up as “distinct markers” whenever someone else reprints
the material from his site.
So far, all the reprints of the Giles version on the Web has been traced back to the same source.

The Three-Characters Classic --- San Zi Jing