Challenges with Italian

Each language, regardless of how directly connected under the cover, is a separate and striking thing which is both only one of its kind dispute and an exceptional joy. In the Professional human translation services one focus very closely on a language match up, and it’s extremely apprehensive when people maintain to be professionally-fluent in supplementary to the other language pair. However that shouldn’t signify that many translation proficient don’t learn other languages for their own learning and enjoyment, and the further one study about different languages the more it results in enhanced translation output one do in general.


For example Italian is one of the, for the most part, fine languages. Even if one is familiar with other Romance languages, Italian has its individual precise defy and particular quirks with the purpose of creating a far-fetched exciting activity to translate into, particularly from English. One may suppose that spiraling clunky English through its Germanic rhythms into the verse of Italian would be fun and it is, however it’s also very theoretically demanding for several of reasons – particularly if one wants ones final result to sound natural.

The Art of One

In Italian, for instance, there are mixtures of ways to speak to an important person as the second person. In English one might have a phrase like “One must to have a split today.” Italian recommends three ways to speak to somebody as “you,” the infinitive, the plural voi, and the singular tu. In this meticulous well-known promotional slogan, one might go with tu because it’s usually used to involve familiarity and a tranquil tone. Choosing the accurate preposition is one of the most fundamental conduct e can make ones Italian sound more natural and less like one learned it in a book, where one almost always come away with a depressingly formal way of speaking and writing.

The Art of The

Italian also insists on prepositions more severely than in English. In English one can frequently get away with dropping the “The” from brand name and designer labels. For example, one can call something “Instruction Manual” in English, but in Italian one should be obligatory to put the missing “the” back in place. Further, the prepositions are divided into genders so one have to work from side to side whether it’s masculine, feminine, or neuter as one go.

Market in Different Languages

In today’s age, where internet is at access with everyone, businesses are making good use out of it by selling their products online. Small business owners who were once incomplete to vending within their own local public, can now achieve clients from across the world. These new chances are worthwhile for businesses as they can escalate their revenue simultaneously find customers who are fervently attracted in niche

Selling to an intercontinental market can nevertheless be intimidating for many commercial owners, because the requirement to familiarize their strategies to new nations and also new languages. A business landlord who merely speak one language may feel astounded about the translation of their marketing resources into new dialects that they cannot recite or understand themselves. Fortunately however, knowledgeable and reasonable translators are highly available for anybody in business, and can be a vast asset during the process of interacting to new markets and enhancing overall sales.

Why Should I Market In Different Languages?

Many businesses can take advantage from advertising in different languages. This can prove to be one of the well-organized ways to gain new clienteles and or present new products and services. Tourism is a clear industry that targets international customers, but it is not partial to hotels and tour operators. Businesses such as purpose venues, restaurants, wedding services and beauty salons can all be endorsed to customers who speak other languages and who are staying in a country for a holiday or business event.


Even though a probable customer may comprehend your local language enough to understand your website and brochures, they may feel more contented reading the material in their home language. The effort you make to connect in a consumer’s own language may improve the trust they have for your business, and permit them to fully recognize your products and services. Your message can help them choose to obtain with sureness and even refer your business on to their friends and family.

Choosing To Translate Marketing Material

The Internet not only makes selling to foreign markets available, but quality interpreters can also be established for fast turnarounds and reasonable rates. We are so past those days when only big businesses and government sections could afford rendition. Nowadays, small businesses and sole dealers can effortlessly reach out to consume their website, social media posts or brochures and flyers interpreted into languages from across the world.

Website translations are highly wanted since analytic’s can be easily used to regulate how many new guests are operating your business from other countries. Your SEO can also be enhanced, as your participants may not be collaborating in other languages. Your business can easily make it to the highest level of Google with distant keywords, and attracting new client investigations within a short space of time.


Positive marketing policies identify that the world is swiftly changing, and continuously proposing new and different chances. Professional language Translation may look as if they are an innovative step, nonetheless it is opening to become an indispensable and ordinary practice for many public in business.

Italian Translation: Moods of Italian Verbs

Italian linguists might have to take a few grammar rules which Italians follow into consideration when they perform language translation services. Italian verbs have a consistent, complex system of forms that express categories such as mood, tense, person, and number; this system is called conjugation (coniugazione).

In grammatical terminology the word inflection indicates, in general, any process of modifying a root through the addition of affixes. More specifically, grammaticians speak of conjugation in relation to the processes of verbal inflection, and declension in relation to the processes of nominal inflection.

A speaker may present the matter expressed by the verb in different ways, each of which is a separate point of view, a different psychological attitude, a different communicative relationship with those who listen: certainty, possibility, desire, command, etc.

Sometimes, the use of a particular mood may also depend on stylistic reasons, on a choice of register or on a linguistic level. So, for example, when using verbs that express an opinion, the indicative (mi pare che ha ragione) is an expression more common than the subjunctive (mi pare che abbia ragione).

In Italian there are seven verbal moods:

    1. indicativo (io amo)
    2. congiuntivo (che io ami)
    3. condizionale (io amerei)
    4. imperativo (ama!)
    1. infinito (amare)
    2. participio (amante)
    3. gerundio (amando)

While the definite moods determine the tense, person, and number, indefinite moods do not determine the person nor, with the exception of the participio, the number.

The infinitive, participle, and gerund are also known as “nominal forms of the verb,” because they often function as noun and adjective; already mentioned is the present participle amante, to which can be added the past participle la (donna) amata. Consider also the infinitives l’essere, il dare, l’avere, and l’imbrunire, or gerunds that become nouns such as laureando and reverendo.

Arabization – Arabic Localization

When a business is targeting different countries across the globe for their marketing campaigns, Arabic localization services becomes a very important services. If your customers include Arabic-speaking customers they will only search for, find, and read your content if it is accurately Arabic localized content. There a few essential components needed for effectual Arabic localization process which include adapting the language’s appearance and functionality of a product or website for Arabic-speaking markets.

Arabic imageIt is wise to choose a professional human translation services for an Arabic translation project since a lot of the business’s growth depends on how well the marketing is done. No one wants to loose potential customers just because of inaccurate Arabic localization. Arabic language translation can be quite challenging for Arabic-speaking localization professionals, majorly because there are a few Arabic-speaking linguists available. The Arabic language also has less number of instances of standardized practical terminology.

The only way to ensure Arabic consumer accessibility to your localized Arabic software, Arabic website, or Arabic documentation is to hire a qualified professional translation agency that has widespread expertise in the Arabic region. Make sure the agency you hire has native-Arabic language speakers to assign your localization project. These specialists should understand how to identify and resolve the many potential Arabic localization challenges.

The following table summarizes some common Arabic localization issues:

Arabic Localization: Web site Issues Arabic Localization Requirements
Bidirectional language Enablement of right-to-left writing.
Color scheme Inoffensive colors for example
Date, time, currency formats Change to standard Arabic formats
E-commerce payments Enable various payment methods such as bank transfers
Arabic Localization: Software Issues Arabic Localization Requirements
Time-to-market Translation memory tools help speed translation
High user expectations Testers should be Arabic speakers
Arabic Localization: Documentation Issues Arabic Localization Requirements
Text length Accommodate possible text expansion/contraction
Printing Arabic fonts Embed fonts in PDF file for printer

 Arabic Internationalization

Arabic Internationalization is the process of making back-end technologies to support Arabic language. Whereas localization is primarily just the front appearance from linguistic aspect, Arabic localization includes specific content according to locality, cultural correctness and design in terms of graphics.

Why internationalization must also be taken into account is to ensure that your Arabic-language application or Web site are as follows:

  1. Supports non-English characters and the direction difference of right-to-left writing system used in Arabic.
  2. Handles the different address, time, date, and numerical formats used in Arabic.
  3. Sorts based on Arabic language rules.

The process of Arabic internationalization may include the following four steps:

  1. Discovery– A preparation of Arabic internationalization and current inclination of the source Website or software application.
  2. Assessment– Review and analysis of the following:
    1. Source architecture and source code of Website or software application.
    2. Global marketing plans and requirements.
    3. Design, development and build processes.
  3. Implementation– Includes the following:
    1. Expressing text strings for ease of localization.
    2. Resolving any number issues like local currency, time, date, or numbers issues.
    3. If necessary, enabling characters or bidirectional writing.
    4. Preparing a localization kit.

How to learn a new language: 7 secrets

It is believed that a young mind learns languages quickly, but that should not make adults refrain from learning new languages. According to a research project by TED’s Open Language Translation Services project here are some basic tips which can be implemented to master the art of leaning a foreign language.


Get real.

In the beginning decide on a simple, achievable goal so that you don’t feel overawed. A German translator suggests: “Pick up 50 words of a language and start using them on people — and then slowly start picking up grammar.”

Make language-learning a lifestyle change.

According to another teacher who is in her 27 years of teaching English, in the research conducting has always observed steadiness as what splits the most efficacious students from the others. Learners should try to make a language habit which can be followed no matter what even when you’re tired, sick or madly in love.


Play house with the language.

Learning a new language continuously keeps the brain in practice. The more you include a foreign language into your daily life, the more ones brain will consider it something valuable and worth caring about. According to researcher who is also a Russian translator in the study “Use every opportunity to get exposed to the new language.” Mark every object in your house in the language you are learning, read books written for kids preferably with illustrations, watch subtitled movies and talks, or live-narrate parts of your day to an imaginary foreign friend.

Let technology help you out.

Dmitrochenkova another researcher in the study presents the idea: “A funny thing like resetting the language on your phone can help you learn new words right away”. Or you can look for many options available online for better and structured learning opportunities. Dutch translator suggests; to expertise in grammar it is best to memorizing vocabulary with its “intelligent” flashcards.


Think about language-learning as a gateway to new experiences.

Learning a new language open up to new experiences from “visiting parks, attending shows, enjoying poetry and folk-rock festivals, to learning about photo-essay techniques.” In other words, according to a Spanish researcher and translator it is fun things that he wanted to do anyway, and makes them into a language-learning opportunity. Many translators learn languages by watching undubbed versions of favorite movies, or even by watching favorite cartoons.

Make new friends.

Interacting with new people who speak the language you are trying to learn can be great help. It will teach you to instinctively express your opinions, instead of mentally translating each sentence before you express it. Look for native speakers around you, or you can even search for foreign pen-pals, set up a language forum online, where volunteer participants can help one another practice their respective languages.


Do not worry about making mistakes.

Do not fear about making mistakes while learning a new language. It is one of the most common barriers to conversing in a new language. But native speakers are like doting parents: any attempt from you to communicate in their language is objective proof that you are a gifted genius. They’ll appreciate your effort and even help you. Nervous about holding a conversation with a peer? Try testing your language skills with someone a little younger. “I was stoked when I was chatting with an Italian toddler and realized we had the same level of Italian,” recalls German translator Judith Matz in the research. And be patient. The more you speak, the closer you’ll get to the elusive ideal of “native-like fluency.” And to talking to people your own age.

Oops! Mistranslated French

No Word-for-Word

The sad part in human translation services is that exact translations are not always the BEST translations; sometime trans-creation is needed to achieve best quality translations. Mostly it is proverbs and sayings, which are so colorful and fanciful hence result in literal translations that would startle and cause apprehension. It is always fun to learn some French proverbs, it is an essential ingredient to become fluent in the language. Using some appropriate proverbs into your speech help you in acculturation and appear more local.

Oops image

Fun with Miss Translation

It is best to speak the new language you are learning; and even better if you practice some irritating and pretentious proverbs. It is very amusing to give very literal translations.

The new trick:

“on n’apprend pas aux vieux singes à faire des grimaces”

Literal meaning: ‘you can’t teach old monkeys to make faces!’

Fair English translation: ‘you can’t teach an old dog new tricks’

but it’s much more fun to use the literal version.

The one about the youth:

“si jeunesse savait, si vieillesse pouvait”

Literal meaning: ‘Youth is wasted on the young,’

Fair English Translation: ‘If youth only knew, if old age only could.’

It captures a sadness that comes with experience that I find very affecting, and lacks the English version’s cynicism.

“un malheur ne vient jamais seul”

Literal meaning: ‘misfortune never arrives alone’ 

Fair English Translation: ‘When it rains, it pours’ but the literal translation

Of course, translation professionals have an odd sense of humor as well as sense of language. Which is why the profession is joined with so much solitude!

Translators beware: False friends in Russian

Many Russian words – mostly with Latin or Greek roots – came to Russia from the Western European languages. However, today they have a much narrower or even a completely different definition. This can confuse the inexperienced translator.

False friends in Russian


In Italian accordo means ‘consonance’. In other languages words with this root can have a broader meaning, such as ‘consent’, ‘agreement’, or ‘arrangement’. However, in Russian the word is used only as a musical term to mean “a combination of several musical sounds of different pitch perceived in harmony.”


Borrowed from the French with origins in Latin. In Latin, artist means ‘craftsman, master’. In modern Russian the definition of this word is more limited than in other languages: Artists are usually actors who perform on stage (theater, opera, pop music) or in film. “You’re such an artist!” can be said about someone who has done something particular, extravagant or even amazing. But unlike in English, a painter cannot be called an artist in Russian.


A question of taste: The untranslatable word ‘poshlost’

A question of taste: The untranslatable word ‘poshlost’

Borrowed from the Greek, in which deka (dekados) meant ‘a set of ten’. The word exists in many European languages, meaning a period of ten years. In Russian, however, dekada means a period of ten days.


Borrowed from the German Klimax, which originated from the Greek, meaning ‘ladder’. In English the word ‘climax’ has a broad definition: It can mean culmination, denouement, the highest point of any process. In Russian (as in other languages) this is a medical term meaning “the cessation of a woman’s reproductive ability, which is followed by disruption and then conclusion of menstruation”.


Borrowed from the German Konduktor, which originated in the Latin conductor, meaning “an escort, one who accompanies”. In some modern European languages the word means the director of an orchestra. But in Russian it only means “a public transportation worker who sells passengers tickets” – a meaning which still exists in English. In Russia a konduktor is usually found on buses and trolleybuses.


Borrowed from the German Magasin (or the Dutch magasijn), which originated from the Arabic makhzan, meaning storehouse. In most modern European languages the meaning of this word has changed: It means a periodical publication – though in English it is also used to describe a container for rounds of ammunition that is attached to a gun, so in this case it preserves something of its original meaning of a ‘storehouse’. In the Russian the meaning has shifted, but not so radically: A magazin is first and foremost a space for retailers.


The 10 most well-known Russian words

The 10 most well-known Russian words

Borrowed from the German Prospekt, which had come from the Latin prospectus, meaning, ‘view, look’. In modern Russian the word has three meanings: “a long, wide and straight street”; “a brief summary of a publication about to be printed (for example, a scientific monograph pamphlet)”; or “an informative publication that advertises something (for example, a company prospectus). But it is not used in the meaning of ‘perspective’, ‘view’ or ‘outlook for the future’ as in modern English.


Borrowed from the German Spekulation, which had come from the Latin speculatio, meaning ‘investigating, exploring’. In modern Russian this word, meaning “buying and selling property, valuables, products, goods, etc. in order to obtain profit (usually by using various prices)” has an extremely negative connotation (this goes back to Soviet times, when prices on all goods were centrally fixed). The other meaning, ‘a philosophical conjecture’, is exceptionally rare.


Borrowed from the German Familie, which had come from the Latin familia, meaning the household. Modern European languages use this word to define the members of a household, the family. In Russian the word familiya means surname, family name; the name added to everyone’s personal name.

Velvet and satin

These are names of two fabrics that are often confused in human language translation. The right Russian translation of the word velvet is barkhat, and of the ward satin – atlas. The Russian word velvet means corduroy; and the Russian satin means a poor type of atlas, one of the cheapest fabrics, a symbol of wretchedness (in Soviet times it was used for sewing the wide, so-called ‘family’ underwear).

Equilibrium between Humans and Automation

It’s all about Trust.

There’s an enthralling analogy between aircraft operation and language services. To conclude both have adequate technology but still need human involvement. Like an aircraft cannot be completely flown without a human pilot; similarly it would be unwise to depend on entirely automated technology. Hence, I conclude a complete shift to machine translation will not happen in the language industry.

Ever wonder why the doors to the pilot cockpit on commercial airline flights are left open during passenger boarding? It appears that out that the passengers have a charming and very human need to peer into the cockpit and see the pilots sitting there. The airlines know this, so they leave the doors open for the passengers during boarding so we can all scratch this persistent little itch of need and reassurance.

It’s also why the pilots talk to us over the intercom during the flight.

So why all this soft-touch hand-holding of passengers? The pilots are actually flying the plane for one reason only: Trust. The plane can fly perfectly well without them and in fact mostly does. If you think translators feel threatened by the encroaching wave of next-generation machine translation software, consider the case of poor commercial airline pilots.


Computer automation today – the current state of technology – can fly commercial aircraft more safely, reliably and flawlessly; respond more nimbly and quickly to changes, and navigate seamlessly through more potential horrific disasters better than any human pilot can.

That’s a potential financial blockbuster for an eternally struggling airline industry. So why hasn’t that happened yet?

The passengers. They would stay away in droves.

Even a hopelessly romantic technophile like me would think twice about flying across the country on an aircraft flown entirely by computer. Although the airlines would sell a LOT of alcohol on those flights.

Cost of Failure

The calculus is different for a passenger because the cost of failure dramatically outweighs every other consideration. The global civil aviation infrastructure has been built up over the last 50 years to maximize safety. It’s this investment in a massive safety culture that allowed commercial air travel to become a commodity. In practical terms, modern civil aviation beat the cost of failure right out of the equation.

Airlines still struggle to differentiate on quality, but they operate in a hyper-competitive, price-driven, razor-thin-profit commodity market because commercial air travel has been engineered to be safer than any other activity in human life.

Good for us passengers. Very bad for the airlines’ bottom line.

Risk and Trust in the Language Services Market

So now we come to the language services market, where the cost of failure is very much alive. In this context, translation customers large and small find themselves faced with the following scenario:

  • They have a real (often vital) need for language services
  • They can’t judge or assess product quality themselves
  • They have a desire (like we all do) not to look foolish or embarrass their company
  • They would like to keep their jobs
  • Their business must succeed in a highly competitive environment

There are risks everywhere in that description – which is ultimately about human emotions in response to doubt, uncertainty, and vulnerability.

What’s most interesting about these requirements is that they mostly lie outside the clients’ own direct control. So their objective in seeking out language services suppliers is to mitigate all these risks. That means that their decision-making process extends to areas far beyond the scope of the physical translation alone.

The persistent laser focus on “quality” and post-editing of machine translation to the exclusion of what language services clients actually need, want and buy every day undermines the financial viability of that approach.

So in addition to translation “quality,” clients value a whole host of soft-touch capabilities whose purpose is to engender trust and confidence and protect them from disaster, just like the (live human expert) airline pilots do.

Here are some examples of how companies that purchase translation services seek to mitigate those risks:

  • They dilute their risk by selecting multiple suppliers
  • They choose suppliers with diverse linguistic and technical capabilities
  • They utilize client review teams
  • They request translation certification
  • They require guarantees, warranties or the right to require revisions

In addition to alleviating obvious risks, language service providers also add value in many other important and essential ways because we see things our clients are unlikely to see. That’s because our clients typically are not language people, do not inhabit the target culture, are not experts in foreign character set encoding, do not give much thought to different time and date formats around the world, etc.

What if Machine Translation becomes perfect?

A reasonable objection to this whole argument is that improving machine translation to the point where it’s indistinguishable from human translation services does in fact address the trust issue and resolves it.

In my view that objection fails because the uncertainty never goes away. Machine translation engines deal in the currency of disambiguation and semantic mapping but never eliminate ambiguity or doubt or even claim to. So error and doubt are actually assumed to perpetually exist in the solution.


Even if this weren’t true, translation users for decades have sought – and largely succeeded – in offloading every possible conceivable risk and remedy onto the translation service providers themselves. Our customers are airline passengers and they expect us – the pilots – to make sure they get home safely. If we use automation in our work, it better not harm them or their business.

a.      Reduced expectations and market realities

This stand-off of sorts has led to many unusually tense – and sometimes baffling – discussions between translation users who are increasingly demanding speed, savings and scalability via machine translation and hybrid MT/TM technology, while language service companies – fully aware of the downside risks that will come back to haunt them – are urging these same clients to abandon client review, adopt “reasonable” (dramatically reduced) expectations, and introduce end-user usability testing that measures outcomes rather than translation accuracy.

b.     The fruits of long endeavors

These attempts to find common ground will continue in the near-term, but the two sides would be far better served if they focused on the herd of elephants milling around the room with “risk,” “trust,” and “liability” signs hanging around their necks.

In the coming decades stand-alone machine translation and other high-speed language automation technologies are going to branch off and serve different markets than will human translation, with its focus on absolute precision, insight, creativity and impact. This is especially true of the boutique end of the market where even today there are not enough skilled human translators to meet demand.

We are already seeing new emerging markets where translation needs are beginning to explode, exact precision is less urgent and speed is paramount – online help desk forums, chat rooms, and quick feedback surveys are some examples, with the Twitter universe standing next in line.

And of course translators – the ultimate technology early adapters – will continue to be among the most ardent users of appropriate language technology in their day-to-day work lives.

Happily this means that the global language services market will diversify and expand in all dimensions to accommodate these new realities. It’s helpful if we all recognize that technology rarely destroys; it more commonly amplifies, or explodes in a galaxy of new choices. Machine translation itself is just a new river in a vast ecosystem.


                                Will Machine Translation Ever Beat Human Translation?


It is so temptation when we think of a world where communicating with others in different languages is effortlessly easy, all hail to machine translation. Will the rise in machine translation mean that people won’t have to learn languages anymore?

It is evident that evolution of machine translation is spreading fast, but the fact of the matter is that we haven’t yet reached the ideal vision. Will it ever happen?

Machine translation dates back since around 1950s, where researchers began the simple use of software to translate text or speech into different languages. The first commercial machine translation system appeared in 1991, with the first web applications following along a few years later.



In the tech-age today, machine translation technology varies from extensively used, free online translation services such as Google Translate, to cheap, on-the-go mobile phone apps such as Apple’s iTranslate, to rather more expensive, customizable, professional software packages.

The pros of machine translation are clear:

It’s cheap and sometimes even free depending on the kind of service you use.

It’s swift for on-the-spot translation needs, or time-critical web content.

It’s innovating almost every other day as researchers strive to make machine translation technology better.

But we can’t ignore the drawbacks which are as clear as the benefits:

It lacks localization as it produces straightforward translation. There is little or no localization in reproducing the content into a suitable cultural context.

Tone in the content is nearly nonexistent as machine translation focuses to translate more restrained aspects of language such as humor and metaphor.

Machine translation often reads very awkwardly breaking the momentum of content, which results in poorly structured sentences which are difficult to read.

If you’ve invested a good time to create content; then you definitely need human creative translation to do justice to the original content and make certain that all client objectives are met.



Probably the most prominent machine translation failure incident is about the Chinese café which wanted to provide a sign in both English and Chinese. The Chinese sign (in Chinese characters) said ‘Dining Hall’, while the shiny new English sign said ‘Translate Server Error.’

The incident attracted global publicity but it did not prove harmful for the café. Although in the serious world of business machine translation such errors can cause some significant complications. Sometimes the organization can end up facing legal action.

Therefore we conclude, that human translation is here to stay. There is unquestionably a place for machine translation, especially in those circumstances where urgency is more important than precision, but in a professional perspective nothing will ever beat the impact of creative, precise, localized, human translation.

The Cultural Influences of India, China, Arabia, and Japan

The impact of Hindu culture deeply inspired Philippine lifestyle.
The sarong ( skirt ) and the putong ( turban ) donned by the early Filipinos ( Pinoy ) and the embroidered shawls continue to donned by today’s Muslim Filipino women are a Indian impact . It has been estimated that nearly 30 percent of the Tagalog words and phrases are derived from Sanskrit, India’s ancient language which significantly indluenced the current European languages similar to English and German. Just a few Sanskrit words in Tagalog are Bathala ( the supreme God ), dala ( fishnet ) , asawa ( spouse ), mama ( man ), diwa ( thought ), puri ( honor ), mata ( eye ), likha ( creation ), lakambini ( princess ), kuta ( fortress ), and wika ( language ). The use of brass, bronze, copper and tin in the decorative arts and metalwork of the earlier Filipinos is also a Indian influence. The boat-shaped lute, a musical instrument even now played by Muslim Pinoys, is of Indian origin.

Early Filipino folklore and literature also present intensive Indian influences. The Maranaw epic Darangan is Indian in both of plot and characters. Balituk, the story of the Ifugao legendary hero, is just like Arjuna’s exploits in the Mahabharata, the terrific Hindu epic. The Agusan legend of a man known as Agnio, resembles the tale of Ahalya in the Ramayana, another great Hindu epic. An eclipse is called laho in Tagalog and Kapampangan. The Philippine people faith is to the impact that an eclipse occurs when the sky dragon swallows and bites the moon or the sun. Old folks tell that the eclipsed moon is red because the sky dragon laho has bitten it, making it bleed, and the folk stampede in into releasing the moon by beating on cans and drums. The marks one finds out on the face of the newly risen moon are said to have been made by the teeth of the dragon that bites it every time it can, and the Hindu god that causes eclipses by biting the moon or the sun is Rahu.

From the Chinese, the early Filipinos learned how to use porcelain ware, umbrellas, production of gunpowder, and specific mining techniques. The loose style in the early Filipino style of dressin, the sleeved jackets and loose trouser of the Muslim Filipino women and the use of slippers show Chinese influence also. As well of Chinese origin was the wearing of yellow dress by the nobles and of blue clothes by the commoners in pre-Spanish Philippine society. The wearing of white dresses and the use of a white background in mourning and burial ceremonies is another Chinese impact.

Several Chinese words exist in the Tagalog language. Among these include sangko ( elder brother ) , pansit ( noodles ) , tinghoy ( oil lamp ) , hibi ( dried shrimp ) , petsay ( Chinese cabbage ) , dikyam ( dried fruit ) , ampaw ( cereal ) , and susi ( key ) . The surnames of a great many Filipino families are of Chinese origin, such as Cojuangco, Lim, Tan, Limjoco, Tongko, Juico and Ongsiako.
Equally important was the adoption by the early Filipinos of certain Chinese traditions. Among those are the arrangement of marriages by the parents of the prospective groom and bride, the practice of employing a go-between in proposing a marriage, and the deep respect accorded by the children to their parents and other elders.

The Japanese developed some important contributions to Philippine life too. They introduced the early Filipinos certain businesses such as the manufacture of arms and equipment’s, the tanning of deerskin, and the unnatural breeding of ducks and fish.
The most significant gift of the Arabs to the life of Muslim Filipinos was Islam, still a living religion in Mindanao and Sulu. The calendar, law, form of government, art, and literature of the Muslim Filipinos are of Arabic origin. The sarimanok design and style in Maranaw decorative art has an Arabic origin. Many tales in Maranaw and Tausug literature are derived from Arabian tales. Finally , there are some Arabic words found in the Tagalog language, such as alam ( know ), sulat ( letter ), salamat ( thanks ), hukom ( judges ), and piklat ( scar ).

Companies who seek to expand their services to a Japanese-speaking market mostly seek English to Japanese translation services. And why shouldn’t they? Japan is without a doubt at the forefront of global trade and offers the perfect economic environment for every business that wants to make it big. But language is a major factor, even when you are dealing with Japanese companies in your home country.


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Importance of Arabic Language in Today’s Global Business Market

Difference between English and Russian Language